The Technology Roadmap (TRM) concept is a consultative process that is designed to help industry, its supply-chain, academic and research groups, and governments come together to jointly identify and prioritize the technologies needed to support strategic R&D, marketing and investment decisions. These technologies will be of critical importance to an industry in the next five to ten years.
CO2 capture and geological storage (CO2 C&S) is an attractive technology to reduce Canada's GHG emissions. In 1997 100.5 million tonnes of CO2 from Upstream Oil and Gas and 127 million tonnes of CO2 from Industrial Emissions were released into the environment. Additional emissions of approximately 110 million tonnes of CO2 were produced in 2000 from predominantly coal fired electricity generation. These numbers are predicted to continue rising for example in the upstream oil and gas and industrial sectors to 125.9 million tonnes and 137 million tonnes respectively, in 2010.
This technology involves capturing CO2 from large point sources and storing it underground in geological formations. In addition, CO2 can be used to enhance the recovery of oil and coal bed-methane. It is an attractive option because it allows continued use of fossil fuel resources and provides the time required for the transition to lower-carbon intensive technologies. The Technology Issues Table, the Electricity Table, and the Oil and Gas Sub-Sector Table identified CO2 C&S as option to decreasing national GHG emissions. Subsequently, the federal government decided that some incentives and technology measures would be supported through the Climate Change Action Plan 2000. Modelling results indicate that 1.5 megatonnes per year of CO2 could be stored in oil reservoirs in Western Canada with the CCAP 2000 measures. However, further CO2 reduction, especially from coal-fired power plants, could be achieved with more cost effective technologies. Conservative estimates indicate that more than 10 megatonnes could be captured and stored annually.
In addition, the use of CO2 capture and storage technologies can also open up new opportunities for the large scale production of hydrogen without CO2 emissions, directly from fossil fuels. The availability of a large and cost effective source of hydrogen initially from fossil fuels can greatly assist the development of infrastructure and end use technologies for a future hydrogen based energy economy - that over the long term could be sustained with hydrogen production from alternative renewable or nuclear based energy sources.
Identify technologies strategies, processes and integration system pathways needed to allow CO2 to be captured and stored in Canada.This Technology Roadmap will address both a nearer term market transition time frame with considerations given to near term growth and the retrofit needs; and the 2015 and beyond time frame for technology pathways requiring longer term development, infrastructure planning and implementation.